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Textiles small literacy: basic knowledge of fabrics
2015/6/1 10:19:56 点击数:1295

Characteristics I, fabrics - each fabric has its characteristic, which is its own conditions and performance. 

     Characteristics of the fabric can be divided into primary fiber material, weave, texture, weight, feel, organize wearing and cleaning performance and other aspects. 

     Brief Description weave, texture, weight, performance wear fabric. 

     1, weave: woven fabrics and knitted fabrics, including fabrics, the vast majority of our clothing is made of woven cloth, woven cloth with the most common tabby, twill, refers to methodically intertwined yarn cloth body structure, the relationship between the texture of the fabric, weight management and feel. 

     2, the texture: Each material has its own organizational structure, due to the different materials and weave, resulting in different tactile / visual effects. Such as: smooth shiny cotton, soft and light materials such as yarn. An original cosplay clothes are very focused on texture, so be careful when you pick the fabric, oh, it is best to discuss with the tailor cutting methods and materials. 

     3, Weight: The weight of the fabric usually refers to the G / M, (the number of grams per meter). This goes without saying it, you want elegant little effect would pick lighter fabrics friends, and vice versa. For example, the exterior of the jacket, skirt, pants and other fabrics with a heavier body, and then use a lighter fabric shirt, in addition, the fabric and the season also has a close relationship with a heavier body will basically fall and winter fabrics, spring and summer basic will be used on lighter fabrics. 

     4, wearing and cleaning performance: Performance is whether wearing clothing durable clothing refers to the possibility of cleaning performance machine wash or hand wash or dry cleaning needs, it is very important for clothes for everyday wear. 

     Category II, fabric 

     In fact, there are multiple meanings cloth, in accordance with the material for the fabric, then known as textile fibers. 

     Despite the wide variety of textile fibers, but can basically be divided into natural fiber and chemical fiber into two categories: 

     ★ natural fiber refers to the natural world, some, or directly from cultured animal textile fibers. 

     ★ chemical fiber is made of natural or synthetic polymers as raw material, through a certain method of manufacturing out of the textile fibers. 

     ★ rayon refers to the natural polymers (such as wood, bagasse or animal fiber, etc.) as raw material, which must be processed into fiber spinning. 

     ★ synthetic based oil, coal, natural gas and some agricultural products as raw materials, synthetic polymer spinning giant formed by the fibers. 

     First, the natural fiber properties 

     (A), cotton 

     1, moisture absorption, comfortable, easy to dye, easier to shrink. 

     2, alkali acid, caustic soda mercerized cotton is treated through the cotton fabric. 

     3, the cotton fibers are more resistant, but not in the long processing time above 100 degrees, such as ironing temperature around 190 degrees, wet the cotton fabric is best when ironing, ironing favor. 

     4, cotton fiber is soft, weak and poor, cotton fabric feel good, comfortable, washable, but easy to wrinkle, suitable for four seasons and other types of clothing and bedding. 

     (Two), Ma 

     Many varieties of hemp, ramie, flax, jute, hemp, etc., is currently used in more fabrics are the first two. Hemp and cotton, some of the same nature. 

     1, hygroscopic, alkali not acid. 

     2, heat resistance is also good, ironing temperatures up to 190 degrees --210 degrees, easy to burn. 

     3, stronger than cotton, hemp fiber hard, weak, poor, fabrics wrinkle easily, harder than cotton fabric, very, cool. The so-called linen, ramie that a southerner wearing fabric, not close after sweating. 

     Ramie is the best quality fiber hemp fiber, with a cool, moisture, ventilation and other features, and high stiffness, hard, very, not personal, suitable for the production of summer clothing. Ramie and polyester blend processing system, "Ma Dacron", with very cool style.

     (Three), Mao 

     Wool textile fibers largest amount on wool, commonly referred to as wool. 

     Coarse wool fibers longer than cotton fiber, a certain curl, its surface covered with a layer of scales. Because of the presence of scales, the wool to bring about a particular property that fulling. Fulling wool refers to rub in warm water and washing liquid, each bite felting properties. Cause in life shrink after washing hair products, the density increases, fulling is one of the reasons, if the scales damage to the smooth performance, fulling wool products will not occur. Therefore, the washing machine on the market sweater, passed over this surface treatment. 

     (Four), silk 

     Natural silk into silk and wild silk, mulberry silk namely; main varieties of wild child tussah silk. Silk strength, fiber slender, soft and smooth, weak sex better than cellulose fibers, with a unique luster. Thin silk fabrics like yarn that is tired person, but also to make real progress plump as Nick, a senior clothing materials like wool are protein fibers. 

     Second, the nature of the chemical fibers 

     ★ as a clothing material is mainly seven-lun, their common characteristics are as follows: 

     A hygroscopic generally lower than natural fibers, easy with the static friction, easy to suck dust. 

     B Most high strength, good elasticity, easy to wear long pilling. 

     When C combustion generally soften contraction, and some can melt, drip drawing production, odor, ironing temperature is lower than natural fibers. 

     D heat setting is good, due to their small hygroscopic, it still remains intact after washing. 

     (A), polyester (Dacron) 

     Is currently the fastest growing development of chemical fiber in a fiber. Commonly known as Dacron. It is made of spun silk yarn fabrics are soft posture, Julie yarn, good Lisi, and more recently by the President welcomed the summer market so-called "yarn material" and so on. The polyester cotton and cotton blended called Dacron (CVC), with wool to wool-polyester, hemp and linen blend of polyester, with its characteristics: sultry, airtight sense, dyeing is not easy, after friction with static electricity, easy cleaning, but it is not easy to shrink, washable, quick drying. 

     (Two), nylon (nylon, nylon, Capron) 

     Commonly known as nylon, nylon, Capron, with its characteristics: good elasticity, high strength, high abrasion resistance, light resistance is poor, drying in the sun easily yellowed commonly used in socks, gloves and knitted sportswear and so on. 

    (Three), acrylic (Orlon, cashmere Lun Lun love Vieques) 

     Has a fluffy, soft, warm, and other features such as light weight, price cheap, bright color, sets high, no mold and termite, washed, not hot and so on. Suitable as autumn and winter clothing fabrics, such as acrylic sweaters, fake fur coats and blankets and so on. 

     (Four), polyvinyl alcohol (vinylon, nylon yarn, cola Lun) 

     After the PVA with cotton, the domestic market has become popular once-dimensional cotton lun cloth. PVA fabrics like cotton, synthetic fibers closest in nature cotton fiber, because of polyvinyl alcohol in our country for less on clothing, used bedding, therefore little introduction. 

     (Five), viscose 

     Its raw materials are natural substances such as wood, bamboo, cotton linters, bagasse, etc., spun rayon fiber is also called its fabrics are: beautiful silk, Fuchun spinning, man-made satin, rayon, artificial and so on. Its characteristics are as follows: 

     1, hygroscopic large, flammable. 

     2, the surface is smooth, soft. Viscose fabric drape than cotton large, suitable dresses and all kinds of fabric, lining. 

     (Six), vinegar (esters, acids) fiber (Victoria) 

     Its mostly silk style appeared, except for apparel fabrics, also commonly done in other materials. 

     (Seven), Spandex (Marley when, Lycra) 

     Has only a high rubber elasticity, so called elastic fibers. Can replace rubber use, but more expensive. 

     1, high flexibility, with other fibers are less high elasticity, good wear resistance. 

     2, in the cold snow or sun without losing its elasticity. 

     Do not sign III fabrics 

     A cotton: 

     Advantages: absorbent, breathable, soft, hypoallergenic, easy to clean, easy to pilling. 

     Disadvantages: easy to wrinkle, shrink, easily deformed. 

     Second, the wool: 

     Advantages: warm, wool soft, good elasticity, heat resistance. 

     Disadvantages: easy to pilling, shrinkage, felting reaction. 

     Third, the skin: 

     Pros: There are certain breathing performance, high durability, high temperature. 

     Color: dark bright color and soft leather, leather is bright. 

     Fourth, Nylon: 

     Advantages: Smooth surface, light, durable, washable and easy to dry, given the flexibility and scalability. 

     Disadvantages: easy to produce static electricity. 

     Five, polyester fiber: 

     Pros: good elasticity, there is silky soft, easy soft hair soft. 

     Disadvantages: poor ventilation, prone to static electricity and hair balls. 

     Six, cotton: 

     Natural fabric, comfortable, breathable, warm, but easy to fold, easy to care, poor durability, easy to fade. 

     Seven, Ma: 
     Natural fabrics, comfortable, lightweight, breathable, but easy to fold, not stiff, poor flexibility, wearing skin prickle. 

     Eight, polyester: 

    Synthetic fabrics, easy care, crisp, not ironing, but poor ventilation, easy to produce static electricity, easy staining. 

     Nine, silk: 

     Smooth, soft, good texture, colorful, but not easy to manage, easy to wrinkle, shrink. 

     Ten, silk: 

     Glossy soft, soft, delicate. 

     Rayon: metallic luster, feel stiff. 

     XI, silk - fabric shiny, soft and bright, soft, smooth, relatively easy wrinkled, there is a certain stretch of. 

     Twelve, silk and rayon 

     1, silk: soft, rich stretch; 

     Rayon: feel a little stiff, clammy feeling, body hanging heavy. 

     2, silk fabric luster relatively quiet, bright but not dazzling; rayon fabric has a unique class of metallic luster, bright and dazzling than the silk fabric. 

     3, hand clutching the fabric after the release, but not significantly fewer wrinkles silk fabric, rayon fabric wrinkles more. 

     Thirteen, viscose - shiny bright than cotton, cotton fine clean uniform appearance than static, feel soft and smooth, soft body bone hanging heavy and inflexible, kneading easy wrinkle, crease at the easy recovery. 

     This identification method can roughly distinguish fabric, but there are certain limitations, for mixed textiles, and sometimes difficult to make an accurate identification, but the sensory identification method is simple and can be carried out under conditions not damage clothing, suitable for general everyday use.

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